Students create texts as part of their instructional writing program as well as writing for a range of different purposes to meet the demands of the curriculum. They write in order to think about, record, and communicate experiences, ideas, and information to meet specific learning purposes.
Students independently create a variety of texts in a range of print and electronic media. They understand their purposes for writing and identify suitable writing processes to meet the purposes. Where appropriate, their writing demonstrates an awareness of their audience through appropriate choice of content, language, and text form.
When students at this level create texts, they:
- select and use tools (e.g. graphic organisers) and strategies (e.g. using headings) to plan and organise ideas and information to meet their purposes for writing;
- create content that is mostly relevant to the curriculum task, covers a range of ideas, experiences, or items of information, and often includes detail and/or comment that supports the main points;
- reread their writing at various stages to check for meaning and fitness for purpose;
- revise and edit their writing for clarity, impact, and fitness for purpose, often in response to feedback;
- proofread for accuracy of spelling, grammar, and punctuation;
- make choices, when appropriate, for publishing in a variety of media, including digital and visual media.
They draw on knowledge and skills that include:
- using language and a simple text structure that are appropriate for the purpose, e.g. an orientation, sequenced events described in the past tense, and linking words to show sequence if recounting;
- using vocabulary (in particular, nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) that clearly conveys ideas, experiences, or information;
- encoding (spelling) by:
- using their knowledge of diverse phoneme–grapheme relationships (e.g., ship, chef, ocean, station, special), of the meaning and spelling of morphemes (e.g., root words and affixes), and of common, reliable spelling rules and conventions
- using their visual memory to help them spell personal vocabulary and high-frequency words correctly;
- expanding their writing vocabulary by using strategies such as:
- applying their knowledge of the meaning of most common prefixes (e.g., un-, sub-, pre-, non-) and most common suffixes (e.g., -ful, -ly, -tion, -able/-ible, and -ment)
- using reference sources (e.g. dictionaries and thesauruses) to check the meanings of words and to find new words;
- using written language features (such as similes and onomatopoeia) and visual language features (such as illustrations and diagrams) to support meaning;
- using mainly simple and compound sentences, along with some complex sentences, that vary in their beginnings, structures, and lengths and are mostly correct grammatically;
- correctly using subject–verb agreement, tense agreement, and pronouns and prepositions;
- using capital letters, full stops, question marks, and exclamation marks correctly and using speech marks, commas for lists, and apostrophes for contractions correctly most of the time.